Economists blamed the borders for causing economic decline. After the Germans defeated France in the War of 1870, there was some discussion, underpinned by the peace movement, of a European federation. Geometric boundaries are pretty much straight lines, religious boundaries are placed to separate speakers of different religions, and language boundaries are used to separate speakers of different languages The Germans were not the only agents of Europeanization, which soon included other continents as well. Some states maintained more than one official language and all European states had, and continue to have, linguistic minorities within their borders. With a fascinating history, this European region has a very modern, dynamic, varied and influential culture. Moving away from physical boundaries, we now come to cultural boundaries. Bluntschli argues that the parties would have to agree that certain languages should be used and/or that the proper languages of the participants should be used with the assistance of translation/interpretation. Total loading time: 0.432 Venue: Seminar Room G, Manor Road Building,Manor Road, Oxford, OX1 3UQ. In pleas for a European federation both Catholics and Protestants downplayed religion as essential. The growth of linguistic nationalism challenged the predominance of French. We turn to cultural borders in order to answer the question of what kind of European integration we hope to have. It was only after the invention of the printing press and the Reformation that publishing in other vernaculars began to take hold. Based on the ideas of European integration before the reality of EU-integration, we can see a desire to accommodate both linguistic and religious diversity. Not surprisingly, he suggested English, French and German as communal working languages for the European bodies he envisaged. This is how things have long proceeded in Switzerland, at international conferences and associations. The cultural manifestations, heritage and linguistic diversity of these regions have in common the construction of the multicultural Europe that we know today. In the beginning of the nineteenth century the European idea often started from the notion that Europe would be better off if it shared one religion. Discussion of territorial borders has long held a privileged position in proposals for a common economic market and a customs union governed by common political bodies. Currently, 7 cultural regions are known on the European continent: Western Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Balkans, Baltic, Scandinavia and the British Isles. They offer great attractions for their geography and medieval cities, as well as for their languages ​​that make up their linguistic richness. The Balkans in Focus: Cultural Boundaries in Europe (Que Vadis Europa? political, cultural, religious, and economic factors William Penn (Reference Penn1693) proposed a European Parliament where the sessions ‘must be held in Latin or French: the first would be very well for the Civilians, but the last most easie for Men of Quality.’ French was long seen as the first choice, but things got more complicated when ideas promoting the rights of citizens began to circulate, insisting that all governance ought to derive its legitimacy from the people it represented. This volume of bilingual essays from renowned European scholars outlines the transformation of Europe’s boundaries from the fall of the ancient world to the age of decolonization, or the end of the explicit endeavor to “Europeanize” the world. [Sanimir Resic; Barbara Törnquist Plewa;] -- Discussing the complex weave of cultural links and the different religious and linguistic groups that have been living side by side in the Balkans for centuries, this anthropological study is … The European culture has always been Europe’s effort to the light against the Erebus of her father Phoenix. Question. He was pro-dean of the Faculty of Arts 2011–2016. European culture is the foundation of humanity. The British journalist Stephen Graham lamented in 1922 that these newly drawn borders posed drawbacks for the traveler, with the amount of time it took to get passports and visa, the costs of exchanging currency, and the distress at the borders when local officials only spoke the national language (Graham Reference Graham1922). He repeated the claim that all Europeans belonged to one single nation; no matter whether they were French, German, Italian or Spanish, they were all entitled to be European citizens (Schmidt-Phiseldeck Reference Schmidt-Phiseldeck1821, 270). Czech culture spills out from every corner of the country, especially in Prague, the historic city center which has been named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. "isLogged": "0", There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region". World War I began in 1914. (Schmidt-Phiseldeck Reference Schmidt-Phiseldeck1821, 304). Central and Eastern European Studies publishing date 2002 type Book/Report publication status published subject. They are boundaries that follow the distribution of cultural characteristics. It addresses discussions on how to manage or even transcend religious and linguistic borders, from William Penn, Novalis and Conrad Friedrich Schmidt-Phiseldeck, to Johann Caspar Bluntschli and Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi. Feature Flags: { The Balkans in focus : cultural boundaries in Europe. We Are Defined by Our (Cultural) Boundaries Studying other cultures and cultural differences provides self-insight. The French integration model: “assimilation model” underpinned by the Republican values stipulates that being French means full acceptance of French cultural and political values . nicht begutachtet. Thanks to the proliferation of French and the greater ambitions to learn foreign languages among many of the European nations, it was argued in 1821 in the era’s most ambitious proposal for a federation that linguistic obstacles would no longer hinder the formation of a European federation (Penn Reference Penn1693; Krause Reference Krause1899; Schmidt-Phiseldeck Reference Schmidt-Phiseldeck1821). We use cookies to provide our online service. This was also when the mindset in Europe’s intellectual history began to change. Latin was the lingua franca of the elites until French took over. Navigation Filter anzeigen. The Habsburg Empire, for instance, is shown as using several languages, certain states have linguistic minorities, and some have more than one religion within their borders (Stülpnagel and Bär Reference Stülpnagel and Bär1871). "metricsAbstractViews": false, He was previously guest editor of the Focus on European Nihilism, in European Review 22 (2014, with Jon Wittrock), and guest editor of ‘Transnationalism in the 1950’s Europe, Ideas, Debates and Politics’, in History of European Ideas 2020, 46(1) (with Ettore Costa). That is the result of ideology and authoritarian, racist policies deliberately pursued by governments and elites. They are 3 common types: geometric, religious, and language boundaries. "clr": false, When I went off to college for the first time, I quickly discovered some small differences between the way I did things, my socially-acquired habits, in this case, from my family, and the way some other students did them. Speaker(s): Laurie Hanquinet, University of York. In fact, language did not play a substantial role until relatively recently. Other writers concluded that just as European culture had made its way into parts of Russia and the Ottoman Empire, so Europeanization spread among the ‘barbarians’ in Africa and Asia. Such agreements became even more reasonable after the fundamental changes in Europe following the Great War. "languageSwitch": true The 1920s saw a discursive turn in European cooperation which already hinted at the integration happening after the Second World War. This is not surprising when it comes to proposals written by Germans after the German unification as the latter had also meant overcoming the long historical divide between Catholics and Protestants in the German-speaking territories. With the growing number of official languages any proposal for cooperation would now need to take into account the new status of many vernacular languages. ER - Lund University Box 117, 221 00 LUND Telephone (switchboard): +46-46-222 00 00 lu@lu.se The Ural Mountains, the Ural River and the Caucasus Mountains are the geographical boundary of the eastern edge of Europe. These are countries with a high wealth of culture and modern advances. For the leader of the Pan-European movement in the interbellum, Coudenhove-Kalergi, religion was not a very big issue. / Resic, Sanimir (redaktör); Törnquist-Plewa, Barbara (redaktör). *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Posted on June 8, 2020 by evswebpage. The idea of independent nation states resonated within Europe and a number of new states emerged with the dissolution of the Austrian, German and Ottoman Empires. In contemporary Europe, these three national languages are in any case the most widespread and almost every educated man knows at least one of them. Professor Dimitar Vatsov (New Bulgarian University), member of the Bulgarian team of EVS, published a reflection on the cultural boundaries of liberalism. "metrics": true, 8. emdjay23. "hasAccess": "1", In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the cultural borders of national identities became important in state-building and in mobilizing resources. By using this website or by closing this dialog you agree with the conditions described, Ingrid Projets Why the Baltic region? 27 February 2020. The historical contexts are nationalism and Europeanization. In this unit, we're going to be talking about boundaries, but boundaries of a specific type, cultural boundary. The European states eventually imposed national languages, and the long struggle then began to enforce political borders that aligned with specific languages and to impose linguistic borders that aligned with political communities; sharp linguistic borders are thus a modern construction. "openAccess": "1", The necessity of cooperation was proclaimed in a cultural landscape where borders and national identities were considered to be fundamental. Cultural boundaries in Europe: Is there a European cultural field? Talking Culture New Boundaries, New Rhetorics of Exclusion in Europe' by Verena Stolcke In the contemporary debate concerning European integration and the "problem" of Third World immigration no less than in devel- opments in anthropology in the past decade, the boundedness of cultures and cultural difference have gained new prominence. These are further illuminated by the use of constructivist theory and the concept of a ‘stagist theory’ from Dipesh Chakrabarty and Roberto Dainotto which legitimizes the domination of some nations over others. In fact, the crises which the EU is sometimes alleged to be in, or which it… Initiatives arguing for unification thus gathered new energy. }. It is often recalled that the founding fathers of European integration were Catholics, but one should also bear in mind that from the very beginning the community had leaders and comprised substantial populations that were Protestant. One lists the main religions of Europe, including Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, Protestantism, Judaism and Islam. A prince did not care which language the peasants spoke amongst themselves, but he had a need to communicate with his equals. (Göttingisches Taschenbuch 1802, 83–85, Herrmann and Heeren Reference Herrmann and Heeren1822, 400). Overall, awareness of the new borders was an important characteristic of the new mindset. Some features of this site may not work without it. The Balkans in focus : cultural boundaries in Europe. On the present level of education, most educated men do have apart from their mother tongue a knowledge of one or two foreign languages of importance that makes it possible for them to understand published works and a speech. While the term"Scandinavia"is traditionally related to the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, there is some ambiguity about the ethnic aspect of the concept in the modern era. The goals of the program are local, regional, and global. Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views. Cultural Boundaries in Europe. Which language should the communal institutions use? History of Europe - History of Europe - Political and cultural influences on the economy: The centralized state of the early modern age exerted a decisive influence on the development of financial institutions and in other economic sectors as well. Embracing cultural diversity in the workplace is an important first step for businesses that want to be competitive on an international scale. Clearly, nationalism is something both widespread and deeply intertwined with the history of modern Europe, and languages and religions are crucial elements for the concept of ‘nation’ and the feeling of belonging to a national community. "relatedCommentaries": true, London is the heart and metropolis, as well as the old industrial cities like Manchester. This was when the long-term development of Europe began to shift to a continuously increasing number of nation states, and this endures even today, when we have some 50 European states. Feature Flags last update: Thu Dec 03 2020 20:59:01 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Further Immigration of Germans to Siebenbürgen would imbue the Magyar natives with more of European culture. It is not so much language as religion that is in focus here, particularly Islam and non-European migrants. The European Capitals of Culture program, started in 1985, has become one of Europe’s most important and high-profile cultural events. Duration: 1.5 hours. Coudenhove-Kalergi was not the one to go deeper into possible problems for the European bodies; if only all parts saw the necessity of a federation and were willing to cooperate then such practical obstacles would be of minor significance. Montesquieu argued that these countries had been leaders in Antiquity, but modern Europe had originated in France, and had progressed at such a rate that the more slowly moving Southern Europeans could not keep up (Chakrabarty Reference Chakrabarty2008 [2000], 7–9; Dainotto Reference Dainotto2007). For such an organization, it is possible to overcome the language problem. From the nineteenth century, it was clear that Europeans consisted of many cultures in demand of national rights. In this region you can visit important symbols of the Roman empire , such as Pompeii or El Coliseo, while Andalusia also reveals traces of the Arab domain. Made up of countries such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Kosovo, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. The choice we face today is whether to approach cultural borders with an inclusive mind, or to see them as an excuse for exclusion, even expulsion. However, the emphasis on cultural borders vis-à-vis the world outside Europe persists. In defining specific guidelines for the implementation of cultural programmes aimed at immigrant integration, administrative officials treat immigrants and nationals differently. Although the language question has continued to be a topic of discussion, it is remarkable how successful the EU has been in terms of its language policy and its extensive use of translation and interpreting. Cultural Boundaries in French and Spanish Societies The cultural border of France is established by the reinforcement and attachment to the national identity and Republican values. However, they never were perfectly enforced. The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographical area. The cultural manifestations, heritage and linguistic diversity of these regions have in common the construction of the multicultural Europe that we know today. They should follow the models of Switzerland, with regional autonomy, Estonia, with cultural autonomy, and Finland, with bilingualism. Europe’s boundaries have mainly been shaped by cultural, religious, and political conceptions rather than by geography. It was already in use in Germany by 1795 when August Ludwig Schlözer, a Göttingen scholar who had specialized in Russian history, argued the benefit of German settlements among the Magyar population in Siebenbürgen, present-day Transylvania. The supplementary maps thus show the linguistic and religious diversity of Europe masked by the territorial borders outlined on the political map. [Sanimir Resic; Barbara Törnquist Plewa;] In Die Christenheit oder Europa und andere philosophische Schriften, Entwurf eines europäischen Staatenbundes, als Grundlage des allgemeinen Friedens und als Rechtlichen Mittels gegen jeden Angriff wider die innere und äussere Freiheit Europas, An Essay towards the Present and Future Peace of Europe by the Establishment of an European Dyet, Parliament, or Estates, Karte von Europa und den Mittelländischen Meer, Christian Europe: borders and boundaries of a mythological conception, Europe beyond Universalism and Particularism, Ideas of Europe during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. In the end, Coudenhove-Kalergi conceived Europe as one culture and as one single nation, with a shared history, a common religious conception, and with languages belonging to the same Indo-Germanic family. Its inception resulted from many trends in European society, culture, and … Thus, the new Europe had emerged. The other map divides Europe into 25 nationalities, detailing Gaelic peoples, Bretons and Basques in Western Europe; Finns, Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians in Russia; and Czechs, Poles and Serbs in Central Europe. Europe is conceived geographically as comprising all of the Balkans and so also those parts that belonged to the Ottoman Empire, and Islam is pictured as one of the continent’s religions. The proposals to merge European nations with Christianity as a unifying factor excluded those parts of geographical Europe occupied by the Islamic Ottoman Empire. He raised another alternative, typical for the interwar period when popularity peaked for Ido, Esperanto and Interlingua, of using an artificial language that would be neutral for all nationalities involved. It is in Eastern Europe, but west of the boundaries that typically define Europe from Asia. English publications speculated in a similar way that India would be a valuable part of the British Commonwealth Empire and thereby part of the European civilization. } Coudenhove-Kalergi left out Orthodox Christianity in both Southeast Europe and Russia. The challenge is this: if language is one of the main, or even the main, indicator of the nation, how would it be possible to set up communal bodies comprising several countries? The notion of a European crisis contributed to the discourse on European unification, offering a strong argument for the need to stick together; internal strife had weakened all of Europe, and continuing divisions would mean that Europe’s downward spiral would only accelerate, with the US and Japan overtaking it on all fronts. For some time he was the leader of a European-wide empire which, he argued, had in fact only one religion. He Romanticism and his art is in Paris, great icons of Renaissance in Florence, and also the Modernism , a multicultural mix and modernity in cities such as Lisbon and Madrid. The notion of Europe as a divided place, in decline and in crisis was essential to the mindset which contributed to European integration post-1945. He argued that the states of Europe normally counted more than one language within their borders and that a general acceptance of multilingualism would avoid many conflicts. This article elaborates upon the idea of cultural borders from the perspective of European unification before EU-integration. On November 10, 2020, Culture Action Europe jointly submitted an open letter to the German Presidency of the EU, European Parliament Budget and ECON Chairs, and European Commission Task Force on European Recovery Plan regarding concerns with the lack of involvement of civil society organisations in the design and adoption of the European regulatory framework for the National … Approach to the study of the territorial effects of heritage. It could come in the form of a religious, ethnic, or language boundary. The Balkan peninsula is bordered by the Adriatic Sea in the northwest, the Ionian Sea in the southwest, the Aegean Sea in the south and southeast, and the Black Sea in the east and northeast. He was not the only one to find disadvantages to the new era. Render date: 2020-12-03T21:02:41.483Z This had nothing to do with the opinions of those outside of Europe. Yet, while Western Christendom is divided between the Catholic and Protestant churches, neither Orthodox Christendom nor Islam are divided into different churches; apparently their varieties are not recognized. However, visions of European unification have also reflected on how to go beyond cultural borders. View all Google Scholar citations While Chakrabarty discusses the impact that European colonialism had on India, Roberto M. Dainotto reminds us that a similar mindset was already at work within Europe. Scandinavia is a region of northern Europe, characterized by a common ethnocultural heritage of northern Germany and northern Germanic languages. History and Archaeology; keywords Balkans, politics, culture publisher Nordic University Press ISBN 91-89116-38-0 language English LU publication? Get an answer. Let's start with an example. What factors gave rise to mercantilism in Europe? Dimitar Vatsov Europe and the cultural boundaries of liberalism Neoliberalism and multiculturalism have failed, but this isn’t a failure of liberalism National-populists, in sync with Russian propaganda, often declare that Europe is in crisis and is about to collapse. It is just two centuries ago that the novel idea of linguistically homogeneous nation states began to gain traction. History of Europe - History of Europe - Revolution and the growth of industrial society, 1789–1914: Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events. In 1814, Karl Krause wanted all treatises, laws and decisions made by a European federation to be ratified in all its languages. (Bluntschli Reference Bluntschli1879, 304). However, he did mention that the federative institutions might include people with altogether 40 spoken languages, and added that the issue of language importantly touched upon matters of prestige. Others suggested a multilingual solution. Interestingly, two appendix maps accompany this political map. for this article. s. Log in for more information. Forskningsoutput: Bok/rapport › Antologi (redaktör) Europe and the cultural boundaries of liberalism. The French Revolution broke out in 1789, and its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades. The region takes its name from the Balkan mountains, which extend from the border between Serbia and Bulgaria to the Black Sea. Focus: Thinking Beyond Europe’s Cultural Borders. Updated 12/19/2016 3:19:30 PM. With this in mind, we should recall that linguistic differences have historically been seen as more recent markers of cultural borders, especially so in comparison with religious divides, which had already started to play a significant role in the Middle Ages. Napoleon also talked of unity with the intention of transcending borders. Even though Novalis fantasized about the communal church of the Middle Ages in 1799, he had neither Catholicism nor Protestantism in mind for the future, but something that could integrate the old with the new. In Schlözer’s narrative, German monarchs had supported the Hungarian rulers in first opposing the Tatars, and later helping them to free their country from the yoke of the Ottoman Empire, thus creating a European nation. Read "The Balkans in Focus: Cultural Boundaries in Europe" by Barbara Tornquist-Plewa available from Rakuten Kobo. Made up of countries such as Gibraltar, Andorra, Spain, Italy, France, Portugal, San Marino and Vatican City. "comments": true, Date: 12:30 on Mon, 06 Mar 2017. The subordinated peoples of the German, Habsburg and Russian Empires struggled for linguistic rights, as did linguistic minorities in France and Spain, but also the Flemish majority of Belgium. Nordic University Press, 2002. 1 Answer/Comment. If Logos, Geometry and Music is what differentiates the humans from other mamalian species then it all started here. Early Nineteenth Century Visionaries and Europeanization, Linguistic Nationalism and European Bodies, Department of Literature, Religion, and History of Ideas, University of Gothenburg, Box 200, SE-405 30Gothenburg, Sweden. The Swiss jurist Johann Caspar Bluntschli’s plan for a federation comprised 15 states – including almost all the European states. I am particularly interested in religion and language as marking cultural borders. Retrieved from ub.edu. Traditionally, the term refers specifically to most of the peoples of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, their states, their Germanic languages ​​and their culture. Hostname: page-component-b4dcdd7-zsvsw In envisioning a united Europe he was radical; his Europe comprised only one people and consisted of a single nation with a singular tradition (Thompson Reference Thompson1994). Also known as the Eastern Mediterranean, this cultural region is occupied by inhabitants of Turkey, Greece, Cyprus, Malta, among others, where the ruins, temples and other ancient monuments rest next to amazing islands. The term Europeanization dates back to the days when it implied how the main nations of Europe transformed the culture or civilizations of other regions within the continent itself or in their colonies in other parts of the world. Thus, Europeanization included what Dipesh Chakrabarty dubbed as the ‘stagist theory’ of history. The most striking aspect of this cultural region is the great diversity that has arisen during years of evolution, which has left scattered monuments and diverse traditions scattered throughout its lands. And all were Christians, regardless of whether they were Protestant or Catholic: In Christian Europe the main components of the political physiognomy, the basic characteristics of mutual relationships of people and citizens, the common forms of culture and ways of life, are everywhere the same.

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